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Grade 8 English
2.17 Subjects and Predicates

Parts of a Sentence

A sentence can be divided into two parts, namely, the subject and the predicate.

Subject: The subject of a sentence tells you who or what the sentence is about. A subject is either a common noun, a proper noun, a pronoun, or a noun phrase.
Sally went to the store.
The tired men and women walked home quietly.

Predicate: The predicate of a sentence tells what the subject is doing. The predicate contains the action, linking and/or helping verb, and any objects. In other words, rest of the sentence apart from the subject is the predicate.
Sally went to the store.

The predicate can be further subdivided into verb, complement, object, etc.

  • A verb indicates the action that the subject is doing.
    Example: Jill sings well.
  • A complement describes the subject and completes the meaning of the sentence.
    Example: Jill sings well.
  • An object is another noun which shows the action of a transitive verb on itself.
    Example: Jill closed the door.

Basic Patterns of Sentences

There are seven basic patterns of sentences.
  1. Subject + Verb (S + V)
    Example: The lion roars. (The lion - Subject; roars - Verb)

  2. Subject + Verb + Adverb (S + V + Adv)
    Example: The lion roars loudly. (The lion - Subject; roars - Verb; loudly - Adverb)

  3. Subject + Verb + Adjective (S + V + Adj)
    Example: The lion is hungry. (The lion - Subject; is - Verb; hungry - Adjective)

  4. Subject + Verb + Noun (S + V + N)
    Example: The lion is an animal. (The lion - Subject; is - Verb; an animal - Noun)

  5. Subject + Verb + Object (S + V + O)
    Example: Dan likes apples. (Dan - Subject; likes - Verb; apples - Object)

  6. Subject + Verb + Indirect Object + Direct Object (S+V+IO+DO)
    Example: My friend gave me a present. (My friend - Subject; gave - Verb; me - Indirect Object; a present - Object )

  7. Subject + Verb + Object + Object Complement (S+V+O+OC)
    Example: Students found the exercise easy. (Students - Subject; found - Verb; the exercise - Object; easy - Object Complement)

Directions: Answer the following questions. Explain in your own words what subject and predicate are. Write at least two examples each for the seven types of sentences described above.
Q 1: Find the subject in:
I did my homework and went shopping.

Q 2: Find the predicate in:
The lazy boy ran slowly around the street.
The lazy boy
ran slowly around the street

Q 3: Find the subject in:
Who are you?

Q 4: Find the subject in:
He listens to her.

Q 5: Find the subject in:
Many children keep hamsters as pets.
Many children

Q 6: Find the subject in:
At night he is never tired enough to sleep.

Q 7: Find the predicate in:
They didn'tít know my name.
didn't know my name

Q 8: Find the subject in:
Some of their tools and utensils were made from the metals of crashed cars and trucks.
were made from the metals
Some of their tools and utensils
crashed cars and trucks.

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